A Syrian film-maker has visualised the rapid and devastating change that his country has undergone since the start of its civil war in 2011 - in a one-minute-long video.
The short film "Fade to black" was directed by Amer al-Barzawi and stars actor Farah Presley - the pair have lived together in Turkey since late 2014 after the former fled his home of Raqqa - now the de facto capital of the Isis terror group.
It begins filled with sunshine and happiness
But soon deteriorates into a dark world invaded by shadowy figures
Al-Barzawi told PBS that he is worried that culture in Syria is being destroyed altogether. Speaking of the takeover by Isis, he explained:
One day, no smoking. Next day, no boys and girls together on the street. After one month, no girls and boys in school [together], then they have to put hijab on the girls. Then, [they said] ‘We don’t want to study this history, physics, mathematics, we want to change it’ … I’m Muslim, but it’s strange for me.