Life not quite going to plan? Just shift the blame onto the shoulders of your childhood self.
Science has pinned down the childhood behaviours that predict success in later life - whether that means educational attainment, finding a more prestigious job and a higher income. Obviously, though, success is subjective.
No study investigated the traits that might lead to the adulthood ability to scoff a pizza in record time. So, if that's your definition of success, you can rest easy if your childhood doesn't quite match up to these behaviours.
Here's what the researchers found that children with extremely bright futures get up to. Spoiler: Do your homework.
1. They have good reading and writing skills
New research published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology analysed data from 346,660 US high school students in 1960.
After checking back with participants 11 and 50 years later, lead author Marion Spengler and her co-authors found that having fewer problems with reading and writing was significantly associated with greater educational attainment, finding a more prestigious job and a higher income.
2. They are interested in school
Spengler's research found that attentiveness when it comes to school is also a predictor of success.
Our research found that specific behaviours in high school have long-lasting effects for one's later life.
3. They're a responsible student
Spengler's team concluded that being a responsible student - for example, attending school, doing your homework and taking exams seriously - suggests that your adult life will likely be pretty fruitful.
4. They do chores
Julie Lythcott-Haims, former Dean of Freshmen at Stanford University and author of 'How to Raise an Adult' , doesn't seem like a bad person to take parenting advice off.